A noun is a word that represents a person, a place, or a thing. A thing in this definition can be a physical entity or it can be an abstract idea. A noun may be used as a subject of a sentence, as a direct object, as an indirect object, or it may be used as the object of a preposition.
A. Noun as subject
1. Carpenters drive nails with air powered guns.
2. Blackhawk was a famous American Indian.
Carpenters are the subject of the first sentence. Blackhawk is the subject of the second sentence.
B. Noun as direct object
1. Mr. Liu washed the car.
2. The authorities commended Roberta.
Identify a direct object by asking what or whom.
First sentence – Mr. Liu washed what? Answer: car. Car is the direct object of the verb washed.
Second sentence – The authorities commended whom? Answer: Roberta. Roberta is the direct object of the verb commended.
C. Noun as indirect object
1. I sent Stephanie the camera.
2. He bought the dog a kennel.
Identify an indirect object by asking to what, for what, or to whom, for whom.
First sentence – I sent the camera to whom? Answer: Stephanie. Stephanie is the indirect object.
Second sentence – He bought a kennel for what? Answer: dog. Dog is the indirect object.
D. Noun as object of a preposition
1. He pulled the little red wagon to the store.
2. From her perspective, the meeting was a success.
First sentence – The preposition is to, and the object of that preposition is the noun store.
Second sentence – The preposition is from, and the object of that preposition is the noun perspective.
Types of Noun:
|Common Nouns name people, places or things that are not specific.||man, mountain, state, ocean, country, building, cat, airline|
|Proper Nouns name specific people, places, or things.||Walt Disney, Mount Kilimanjaro, Minnesota, Atlantic Ocean, Australia, Empire State Building, Fluffy, Sun Country|
|Abstract Nouns name nouns that you can’t perceive with your five sense.||love, wealth, happiness, pride, fear, religion, belief, history, communication|
|Concrete Nouns name nouns that you can perceive with your five senses.||house, ocean, Uncle Mike, bird, photograph, banana, eyes, light, sun, dog, suitcase, flowers|
|Countable Nouns name nouns that you can count.||bed, cat, movie, train, country, book, phone, match, speaker, clock, pen, David, violin|
|Uncountable Nouns name nouns that you can’t count.||milk, rice, snow, rain, water, food, music|
|Compound Nouns are made up of two or more words.||tablecloth, eyeglasses, New York, photograph, daughter-in-law, pigtails, sunlight, snowflake|
|Collective Nouns refer to things or people as a unit.||bunch, audience, flock, team, group, family, band, village|
|Singular Nouns name one person, place, thing, or idea.||cat, sock, ship, hero, monkey, baby, match|
|Plural Nouns name more than one person, place, thing, or idea.||cats, socks, ships, heroes, monkeys, babies, matches|
Spelling Rules for Making Plural Nouns
1. Normal Nouns
Normal nouns are made plural simply by adding an s. Because normal nouns are very numerous, this is a very limited list.
2. Nouns ending in s, x, z, ch, or sh
Nouns that end in s, x, z, ch, or sh are made plural by adding es. The list below includes only a small sampling.
3. Nouns ending in y, preceded by a consonant
Nouns that end in y, preceded by a consonant, are made plural by replacing the y with ies.
4. Nouns ending in y, preceded by a vowel
Nouns that end in y, preceded by a vowel, are treated like normal nouns: just add s.
5. Nouns ending in o, preceded by a consonant
Some nouns that end in o, preceded by a consonant, are made plural by adding es.
Other nouns that end in o and are preceded by a consonant are made plural by just adding s. If in doubt, check a dictionary.
Still other nouns ending in o and preceded by a consonant have both recognized plural forms: add either s or es. If in doubt, check a dictionary.
|buffalo||buffalos or buffaloes|
|halo||halos or haloes|
|mosquito||mosquitos or mosquitoes|
|gazebo||gazebos or gazeboes|
|tornado||tornados or tornadoes|
|embargo||embargos or embargoes|
6. Nouns ending in f or fe
Some nouns that end in f or fe become plural by changing the f or fe to ves.
Other nouns that end in f or fe are treated as normal nouns: just add s.
A small group of nouns that end in f can be made plural either way:
|hoof||hoofs or hooves|
|dwarf||dwarfs or dwarves|
|scarf||scarfs or scarves|
|loaf||loafs or loaves|
|staff||staffs or staves|
|wharf||wharfs or wharves|
7. Irregular Plurals
Many nouns are just, well, different. There’s nothing to do but learn which these are. If in doubt, consult a dictionary.
1. Some nouns ending in us are made plural by changing the us to i.
|focus||focuses or foci|
|fungus||funguses or fungi|
|octopus||octopuses or octopi|
Some nouns ending in is are made plural by changing the is to es.
Some nouns ending in ix or ex are made plural by changing the ix to ices.
Some nouns ending in eau are made plural by changing the eau to eaux.
|bureau||bureaus or bureaux|
|tableau||tableaux or tableaus|
Some nouns become plural by changing the ending to en.
5. Some nouns become plural by changing the ending to a.
6. Some nouns become plural by changing oo to ee.
7. Some nouns become plural by changing the ending a to ae.
|antenna||antennae or antennas|
|formula||formulae or formulas|
|nebula||nebulae or nebulas|
8. Some nouns become plural by replacing ouse with ice.
1. Some nouns don’t change at all between singular and plural forms.
2. Some nouns only have a plural form.
3. Some nouns have only a singular form in ordinary usage (some of these, like money, cotton, and sugar can be plural when talking about particular kinds).
4. Some nouns naming animals have two plural forms.
|antelope||antelope or antelopes|
|cod||cod or cods|
|elk||elk or elks|
|fish||fish or fishes|
|flounder||flounder or flounders|
|grouse||grouse or grouses|
|herring||herring or herrings|
|quail||quail or quails|
|reindeer||reindeer or reindeers|
|salmon||salmon or salmons|
5. Compound nouns are usually made plural by making the first noun part plural.
|run batted in||runs batted in|